Two two-stage game models related to discriminatory licensing pricing and uniform licensing pricing strategies were constructed. The optimal technology licensing pricing decision and social efficiency allocation under the two licensing contracts were examined, and the impact of discriminatory licensing pricing on the licensor's decision-making behavior, allocation efficiency, and social welfare was analyzed. It is shown that, compared with uniform licensing pricing, discriminatory licensing pricing can promote the integration and coordination of the R&D firm and the manufacturers. The manufacturer with high production allocation efficiency can produce more products under discriminatory licensing pricing, thus improving social allocation efficiency. Under discriminatory licensing pricing, although the royalty for the manufacturer with high production allocation efficiency can be reduced by the R&D firm, higher fixed fees can be charged, thus alleviating the "water bed effect" caused by excessive pricing differences. When the product substitution of manufacturers is strong, although uniform licensing pricing intensifies market competition, it is more conducive to improving social welfare.